(Ed. Note: Figures that go with this article are forthcoming. To see the original article and view embedded images go to TESLA. It may take some time to load because file is JPEG. The Original article with figures cannot be printed at this time. Thank you for your patience.)

 

 

A PHYSICIST'S VIEW OF USING TESLA
STANDING EARTH SURFACE POTENTIAL WAVES TO
PATCH THE EARTH'S OZONE HOLES

by Gary Wade (2/25/95)

 

In 1974 F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, chemists at the University of California in Irvine, suggested that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were being broken down in the stratosphere by solar ultraviolet radiation. Furthermore, the freed chlorine atoms were involved in catalytic chemical reactions which had the end result of reducing the ozone (O3) concentration in the stratosphere. If this were true it could have catastrophic consequences for life on earth, since ozone is the trace gas in the stratosphere responsible for absorbing essentially all of the ultraviolet B band of radiation (UV - B), which is so potentially harmful to all living cells. It is now 1995 and Rowland and Molina were right. There is absolutely no doubt that there has been significant degradation of the earth's stratospheric ozone layer caused by (CFCs) and other gaseous chlorine compounds.(1,2,3) Furthermore, all indications are that the degradation is going to get worse before it gets better. Even though CFCs will apparently not be produced after 1995, their present concentration in the lower atmosphere will probably increase through 2001 A.D.. CFCs have an effective half life in the atmosphere of around 100 years. Furthermore, as physicist Adam Trombly has pointed out,there is good reason to suspect that perhaps the majority of the chlorine atoms in the stratosphere may not be from degraded CFCs. If this is true and I suspect it is, then our ozone depletion problem is not going to go away when the CFCs effectively go away in a hundred years or so. The questions now become: 1) How bad is the damage to life on earth going to be? and 2) Is there any meaningful steps that can be undertaken to lessen the damage?

 

Currently the ozone holes form over the polar regions in their respective early Springs, then grow in size and in the Anarctic break up into large northward wandering fragments. Besides the ozone holes, which are large extreme ozone depletion regions in the stratosphere, there are the beginings of a general thinning (lower density) of the ozone layer over the entire earth. From the currently observed damage trends we should not be surprised to see a 25% decrease in the current levels of phytoplankton in the Anarctic oceans and a smaller decrease in Arctic oceans by 2000 A.D. due to the continually increasing UV - B damage. Since the phytoplankton are the base of the food chain , a similar reduction in numbers of many Arctic and Anarctic creatures could occur. If the polar ozone holes continue to become larger and the planet wide ozone layer continues to thin out, we could expect to see the beginnings of food crop damage in Europe, Russia, Canada, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Asia (rice). Also, the world's forests in the non equatorial regions could begin to experience significant tree damage and loss. As if all of this were not bad enough, we should also see a rapid increase in skin cancer occurrences, and an accelerated mutation rate in microorganisms.

 

An increasing ozone depletion problem when coupled together with our rapid planet wide population increase, makes for a potential planet wide food emergency. If we should be so unfortunate to have one or more large volcanic eruptions such as the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, things could become much worse. Massive amounts of aerosol / sulfur particles would be ejected by volcanoes directly into the stratosphere, where they would remain for years. These particles provide reaction sites for the chlorine monoxide to break down ozone while at the same time suppressing nitrogen compounds which react with and stop chlorine monoxide's reaction with ozone. The solar energy absorption by these particles heats the stratosphere and changes convection currents and ozone transport around the stratosphere.

 

Now that we have had a glimpse of how bad things may become, is there anything we can do to stop it, if the need should arise? Yes! First, not only halt CFC production, but halt the production of all gaseous chlorine compounds which add significant chlorine to the atmosphere. Good-by chlorine beach, good-by chlorinated swimming pools, hello ozonenated pools, like those in Europe, good-by and good riddance to chlorine drinking water, hello ozonenated water like they use in Europe, good-by spewing gaseous chlorine compounds from poorly regulated chemical processing plants, etc.. Secondly, the solution or temporary fix to our ozone depletion problem was discovered and verified by Nikola Tesla in experiments he conducted in 1899. You are familiar with Tesla's work. The 60 cycle polyphase electric power system we use today was invented / designed by Nikola Tesla.(4) The polyphase motors which do much of the work on our planet were also invented by Tesla. What you are probably not familiar with was Tesla's discovery that the entire planet surface can be used for both electrical energy storage and delivery. And it is this discovery which provides a method for creating large amounts of extra ozone at the bottom of the earth's ionosphere and top of the stratosphere to compensate for the ozone being lost in the stratosphere.

 

Nikola Tesla in 1893 told a meeting of the National Electric Light Association that he believed it "practical to disturb, by means of powerful machines, the electrostatic conditions of the earth, and thus transmit intelligible signals, and perhaps, power". . . . "It could not require a great amount of energy to produce a disturbance perceptible at a great distance, or even all over the surface of the earth." In May of 1899 Tesla arrived in Colorado Springs, Colorado where he began construction of his high - power transmitting apparatus. During the ensuing year and into the next year he would use his apparatus to study and experiment with wireless power transmission, the earth used as a radio transmission medium, earth electrical wave resonance phenomenon, natural lighting observations, and man made lighting observations. One of his many accomplishments during this period was that he was able to demonstrate and reduce to practice the entire earth surface being used as an electric energy storage surface and highly efficient electrical energy delivery medium.(5,6,7) Tesla demonstrated that, if high voltage alternating sinusoidal waves were injected directly into the surface of the earth at certain well defined specific frequencies, those waves would travel out in all directions and converge and pass through each other on the opposite side of the earth from the injection point, continue to transit the entire globe, converge back again at their injection point, pass through each other again and transit the entire globe again and add their wave energy to the waves that had been injected before them and to those that had been injected during their transit around the globe. In other words standing (resonance) earth surface potential (voltage) waves of tremendous voltage amplitude can be generated. In fact, Tesla succeeded in generating voltage amplitudes in the range of 100,000,000 volts.(8) Tesla showed that nothing more than a common iron core transformer, a good earth ground, and a elevated spheroidal conductor was all that was needed to efficiently tap into the electrical power stored in these standing earth surface potential (voltage) waves. The only requirement was that the combination of the effective inductance of the transformer primary windings and the capacitance of the elevated spheroidal conductor when connected together in series as shown in Figure 1 form an electrical resonance circuit that has a resonance frequency equal to the frequency of the standing earth surface potential waves. Figure 2A shows Tesla's Colorado Springs apparatus located at point 1 on a great circle path which circles the entire earth (see U.S. Patent # 1,119,732 (1902)). His apparatus was essentially nothing more than a high voltage transformer, the primary windings of which were driven by a sine wave voltage oscillator and the secondary windings of which formed a series inductor and capacitor circuit, with one side of the secondary windings making a good earth ground connection and the other side connected to a elevated (200 feet high) metal sphere (3 feet in diameter), which had a small capacitance with the rest of its surroundings (the universe ). Figures 2B,C,D,E and F illustrate the first five (N = 1,2,3,4, and 5) standing voltage wave form envelopes of an infinite series of standing voltage wave forms that an electrically conductive ideal sphere can support. In general the frequency (F) of these standing voltage wave forms is given by Equation 1. C is the velocity of electrical wave propagation, which is dependent on the frequency, but at the frequencies we will be interested in, it can be considered a constant. N is a positive integer. L is the circumference of the sphere (the earth (L = 40.0239 x 106 meters) ).

F = CN / 2L ; Equation 1

 

Figure 2G illustrates the standing voltage wave as it would be observed on an oscilloscope at any fixed point on the earth's surface that is not a node point, such as points 3, 4, and 5 in Figure 2B. The standing voltage wave form envelopes of Figures 2B,C,D,E and F illustrate / demark the maximum voltage amplitude as a function of position of voltage verses time wave forms, as those illustrated in Figure 2G.

To see how we intend to patch the ozone holes / layer consider Figures 3 and 4. Figure 3 illustrates the vertical structure of the earth's atmosphere. The earth's ozone depletion problem is occurring in the stratosphere. Directly above the stratosphere is the mesosphere. In the middle of the mesosphere the D - layer of the ionosphere occurs during day light hours. It is here in this D - layer we wish to use the electric field produced by the Tesla standing earth potential waves (see Figures 4A and B) to accelerate the free electrons (e) of the D - layer. We wish to accelerate these electrons to sufficient velocity (kinetic energy) to be able to do several things during collisions with oxygen molecules; first, to split oxygen molecules (O2) into free oxygen atoms as shown in Equation 2 and 3; secondly, to generate more free electrons for use in generating more free oxygen atoms as shown in Equations 3 and 4.

 

O2 + e -------------> O + O + e ; Equation 2

 

O2 + e -------------> O+ + O + 2e ; Equation 3

 

O2 + e -------------> O2+ + 2e ; Equation 4

 

After the free oxygen (O) is formed in the mesosphere it has a probability of combining with a oxygen molecule to form ozone as indicated in the chemical reaction of equation 5.

 

O2 + O + M ---------------> O3 + M ;

Equation 5

 

where M is an arbitrary molecule or atom required to conserve energy and momentum in the reaction. For example M could be N2 (nitrogen molecule), O2, O, NO, etc.. As the free oxygen atoms diffuse downward in the mesosphere toward the stratosphere the reaction of Equation 5 becomes highly probable. This newly formed "Tesla" ozone will absorb UV - B radiation and the amount of this "Tesla" ozone generated is determined by the amplitude (voltage) of the Tesla standing earth surface potential waves. To achieve efficient coupling between the electric fields of the Tesla standing waves and the free electrons in the daytime D - layer of the ionosphere, the wave length of the standing waves needs to be in the neighborhood of twice the distance (S) between the earth's surface and the bottom of the D - layer (see Figure 4A). To find the standing wave frequencies associated with this wavelength range we use a fundamental relationship between the frequency (F), the wavelength (W), and the speed of wave propagation (C), which holds for all types of wave motion. The fundamental relationship is that the product of the frequency and wavelength equals the wave propagation speed (C). This relationship is expressed mathematically in Equation 6.

C = WF ;

Equation 6

 

To find the approximate frequency range needed for ozone hole patching we let C equal the speed of light ( 3 x 108 meters / second ) and W equal to twice the distance ( S = 60 x 103 meters ) between the earth's surface and the bottom of the daytime D - layer of the ionosphere. Putting these values for C and W into Equation 6 and solving for F, we obtain F = 2,500 cycles per second. Now that we have an approximate frequency range for the needed standing voltage waves we can use that value of frequency in Equation 1 and solve for the oscillation mode (the value of N). Equation 7 is Equation 1 rearranged to solve for N.

 

N = 2LF / C ;

Equation 7

 

Putting in the values for L, F, and C into Equation 7 we obtain, N = 667.065. However, N must be an integer, so N in the neighborhood of N = 667 is what we desire. For example, values of N between 500 and 800 should work fine. In other words the earth has several hundred standing wave modes / frequencies that can be used to patch the ozone holes / layer.

 

Figures 2B, C, D, E and F which I used to illustrate the standing voltage wave phenomenon were for standing voltage waves on a one dimensional circular path. However, the earth is a two dimensional spherical surface. What this means is even though the frequencies given for the standing wave modes in Equation 1 are also correct for a spherical surface, the amplitudes of the standing wave envelopes in Figures 2B, C, D, E, and F are incorrect. Also, the number of standing wave envelopes shown for a circular path are twice what they are for a sphere of the same circumference. In other words, for the case of a sphere, the standing wave envelopes of Figures 2B,C,D,E, and F should be cut in half (terminate at L / 2 instead of L). Figures 5A and B illustrate the correct qualitative characteristics of the standing wave envelopes on a sphere for large odd and even values of N. What we see is that the standing wave amplitude decreases with distance from the injection site until a distance of one fourth the circumference of the earth has been reached and then the amplitude increases in the reverse manner that it decreased until it is back to its original strength at one half the earth circumference from the injection site on the opposing side of the earth. By placing / building several injection sites around the edge of the Arctic ocean and or Anarctic continent, both the Arctic and Anarctic oceans as well as the rest of the world can be protected from UV - B radiation damage. The standing voltage waves forms from the various injection sites will form standing voltage wave interference patterns on the earth's surface. What this means is that standing voltage wave amplitudes several times that of any one single standing voltage wave form from an individual injection site will be created by this interference phenomenon. By running the various standing voltage wave form injection sites at slightly different frequencies, the interference pattern can be made to move continually over the earth surface in such a way as to give a uniform ozone generation result in the D - layer of the ionosphere.

This Tesla engineering fix for the ozone holes / layer is straight forward, relatively inexpensive, and can be implemented quickly. The real potential problem in its implementation is its economic and political implications. Once such a Tesla fix is embarked upon, the entire world will realize that their current power delivery system is not needed and can be replaced with a version of the above described standing voltage wave system. We do not need all of these millions of miles of power lines and associated equipment and materials. We only need standing voltage wave injection sites / plants at or near the power generation sites and modern versions of the resonant power pickup circuit of Figure 1 at your house / work place or on your vehicle / ship. When power can be efficiently transmitted world wide from any local source, then we do not need all of the current generating capacity we have now in the world. For example, while America sleeps our excess power generation capacity can run the rest of the world. And how do you charge for this new much cheaper power? This is the problem J.P. Morgan and John D. Rockerfeller could not solve when Tesla explained his new world power system to them. Well, I assume you can see how disconcerting all this could be to the current power elite who own / control the world power industry, which upon close inspection, is strongly connected to petroleum production, petroleum refining, petroleum product transportation, natural gas production and usage, mining (coal, copper, and uranium), manufacturing site location, power plant and distribution system financing. Well over a trillion dollars are tied up in and invested in the current world power system invented by Tesla before the turn of the century.

 

Now how much UV - B damage should the planet endure before the Tesla standing voltage wave ozone generation method is implemented?

 

Please, send a copy of this article to your various government representatives, along with your comments. And please, keep in mind that the implementation costs of this Tesla ozone holes / layer patch fix can be afforded by any single state in our union. Furthermore, the injection sites can be built in the U.S. and still achieve the desired results, even though the ideal injection site locations are in the polar regions. Perhaps, if the skin cancer rate becomes high enough in places like Colorado and the damage to their forests can no longer be blamed on acid rain and beetles, the State of Colorado will build injection sites, maybe one at Colorado Springs. Perhaps the State of Colorado could add a five dollar a year skin cancer prevention tax onto the State income tax and build several Tesla facilities around the state and in nearby states.

 

References

1) "Naked Planet" by Alan Weisman, Los Angeles Times Magazine, April 5, 1992;

2) "Evidence for Large Upward Trends of Ultraviolet - B Radiation Linked to Ozone Depletion" by J.B. Kerr and C.T. McElroy, Science, Vol. 262, 12 Nov. 1993.

3) "Record Low Global Ozone in 1992", Science, Vol. 260, 23 April 1993.

4) The following are Tesla's patents which are the basis for the current situation / conditions of electric power generation, transmission / distribution, and usage in the entire world.

395,748; 381,968; 381,969; 381,970; 382,279; 382,280; 382,281; 382,282; 390,413; 390,414;

390,415; 390,721; 390,820; 401,520; 405,858; 405,859; 406968; 413,353; 413,702; 413,703; 416,191; 416,192; 416,193; 416,194; 416,195; 417,794; 418,248; 424,036; 433,700; 433,701;

445,207; 455,067; 459,772; 464,666; 487,796; 511,559; 511,560; 511,915; 512,340; 524,426;

555,190.

5) "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy" by Nikola Tesla, Century Magazine, June 1900. Also see similar Tesla article in Electrical World and Engineer, May 5, 1904.

6) For information on obtaining English translations of Tesla's Colorado Springs lab note book, contact: The International Tesla Society, P.O. Box 5636, Colorado Springs, CO. 80931.

7) Prodigal Genus: The Life of Nikola Tesla by John J. O'Neill, Published by Angriff Press, P.O. Box 2726, Hollywood, CA. 90028

8) Ibid. pp. 186 and 191.

 

 

 

BACK TO OXYGEN HEALING PAGES

 

BACK TO RIFE HEALING PAGES