PHYSICIST'S VIEW OF
THE USE OF
FEEBLE ELECTRIC DIRECT
CURRENTS TO REPAIR
REPLACE BODY PARTS
BY GARY WADE, PHYSICIST
In this article I am going to give a review of the essential aspects and results of Dr. Robert Becker's research group and the work of others, as was laid out in his book , THE BODY ELECTRIC , which will supply the solid foundation needed to support a simple yet critical observation, which explains how in general to regenerate mammal body tissues, including the spinal cord. (See links to collected articles of Gary Wade at end of this paper.)
Mammals are lacking a single simple tissue electric direct current "code", which would allow them to repair server tissue damage such as an amputation. After server tissue damage in mammals all of the other needed biological repair processes are ready and just waiting for this electric direct current code. Complete tissue repair or replacement would then come as a natural course of events, following this direct current code. This direct current code can be simply and easily artificially supplied after server damage. This direct current generates a physical chemistry process which has the net result of significantly increasing above normal the positive ion concentrations and decreasing the negative chlorine ion concentration below normal in the saline plasma solution outside the cell membranes in the damaged tissue. These much higher positive ion concentrations and lower than normal chlorine ion concentrations in combination with nerve cell and other cell hormone secretions foster tissue repair and or replacement. Though the direct current regeneration code can be simply and easily implemented in practice, the current allopathic medical system is not likely to implement it. The people who need this regeneration process will probably have to light a "fire" under the hind quarters of allopathic medicine's ignorant, arrogant, complacent, and corrupt leadership.
Some years ago I read the book THE BODY ELECTRIC by Robert O. Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden.(1) For me it was a fascinating book for it dealt with many of the electrical aspects of biology, which I have a keen interest in. Shortly after reading Becker's book my sister informed me that a dear friend of her's had become a quadriplegic as a result of a gun shot to his neck. The perpetrator of this act had been apprehend shortly after the shooting. It was learned that it had been a case of mistaken identity. This hired killer had mistaken Richard for his intended target. Because of Richard's tragic situation , I decided to see, if there was something I could do to cure spinal cord damage and breakage. To do this I would have to figure out the secret to repairing / replacing body tissue in mammals. Becker and his associates had essentially done all the needed experimental work , as was clearly laid out in his book THE BODY ELECTRIC. What was required was someone to put all the pieces together into a coherent approach to regeneration, which explained what was the critical factor to get tissue regeneration or replacement. Becker and his fellow researchers had even effectively done this. They had only failed to recognize a positive ion increasing concentration process and a decreasing negative chlorine ion concentration process caused by the direct current which triggers cell dedifferentiation in certain cell types necessary for beginning the tissue regeneration process.
Figure 1A crudely illustrates the Anatomy of the nervous
system of the salamander. Even though
there is a great deal of difference in the fine details between a salamander's
nervous system and that of a mammal, it can still be thought of as a forerunner
to ours (see
Figure 1B). And in fact there is one critical similarity
between salamander and mammal nervous systems which is critical for
regeneration of damaged tissue. That
similarity is that both nervous systems have Schwann type cells which surround
motor nerve axons and sensor nerve fibers, which also transport direct electric
currents to and from body tissue (see Figure 1C and Figure 1D). The
Schwann cells coating the motor nerve fiber axon carry negative charges
(electrons) away from the central nervous system and deposit them into body
tissue in the form of hydroxyl ions (
As we proceed in this article, it will become clear how thesecurrents are critical to regeneration. The 2 key physiological difference for us to note in the nervous system anatomy between a salamander and a mammal is that a salamander has approximately three to four times more nerve tissue mass per unit volume of tissue when considering tissue outside the central nervous system. This means that salamanders have potentially approximately three to four times more current transporting ability to and from their tissue.(2) However, it is the basic similarities between the salamander and mammal nervous systems which initially gave hope, that was later experimentally verified, that a mammal could regrow body parts, just as a salamander could. It is the astounding regeneration abilities of salamanders that has kept some researchers so hopeful for mammals ( humans ) to be able to some day regenerate body tissue and parts throughout the entire body, if only the salamander's secret could be learned. Salamanders can regrow their arms, legs, tails, half a heart ( after surgical removal ), repair a cut or severed spinal cord, regrow a removed eye, and regrow large amounts of their brain ( after surgical removal ).
Figure 2 illustrates the qualitative distribution and polarity of the voltage found on the skin surface of the salamander. The negative areas have a very slight surplus of electrons and the positive areas a very slight deficiency of electrons. Figure 3A and Figure 3B illustrate how the relative voltage changes with position on the legs and arms on a salamander's body relative to the voltage potential at the reference points, the lumbar plexus and brachial plexus respectfully. In Figure 3B the reference voltage has arbitrarily been set to zero for graphing purposes.
Figure 4 illustrates a sponge soaked in salt water
mockup of a salamander, which Becker made.
His idea was to consider a salamander's body essentially a saline
solution with current sources imbedded in it.
Becker used the contact potential difference between two dissimilar
metals ( copper and solder ), along with their electrochemical potential
differences to supply the driving voltage which supplied a weak electric
current in the salt water solution of the salamander mockup. The copper charges up negative when in
contact with solder ( lead and tin alloy )
and the solder charges up positive.
The electrically conductive salt solution completes the circuit between
the exposed copper and solder electrodes shown in Figure 4.
Positive ions of lead ( Pb++ ) and tin ( Sn++
) "dissolve" into the salt
solution along with chlorine gas generation and minor positive hydrogen ion
generation and molecular oxygen generation at the positive solder
electrode. Negative hydroxyl ions (
Figure 5A illustrates the re growth / regeneration process a salamander goes through after it's arm is amputated just above the elbow. Figure 5B illustrates how the voltage potential at the wound / amputation site relative to the reference point ( brachial plexus ) potential , arbitrarily set to zero, changes with time as the wound site changes into a blastema and grows into a new arm. The final voltage reading on Figure 5B is from the new fingers. It is the salamander's Schwann cells which supply the observed voltage / current changes associated with regeneration. The relative voltage increase at the amputation site indicate a similar increase in negative current being delivered to the wound area. Becker performed experiments(3) which showed that the current carrier in the Schwann cell coating is a N - type semiconductor. The N - type semiconductor is presumably the triple - stranded protein collagen , which is used by the body for cohesion between cells and which is also a known N - type semiconductor.
A key experiment was performed by Becker's research team on frog red blood cells which gives the key information to answer the question: How can cells dedifferentiate from a specific functional cell type such as a blood cell type into primitive embryonic looking cells of the blastema. These blastema cells then divide / multiply and then differentiate under the direction / control of nerve cell hormone secretions and adjacent cell hormones secreted into all the cell types needed to form the reforming arm tissue after amputation, as is illustrated in Figure 5 A. Figure 6A and Figure 6B illustrate Becker's key experiment carried out on frog red blood cells.(4) Frog and salamander red blood cells unlike mammal red blood cells, still have their cell nucleus containing a complete copy of the frog or salamander genetic material ( the chromosomes ). The salamander red blood cells are the main target cells that the salamander uses to form the embryonic primitive cells of the blastema. In mammals the target cells used for forming the primitive looking dedifferentiated cells of the blastema are apparently mainly the fibroblast cells, Schwann cells, bone marrow cells and glia and ependymal cells in spinal cord repair. Observing frog red blood cells with a microscope while exposing them to different values of minute direct current flow in their surrounding saline medium (Ringer's solution), the frog red blood cells change into primitive embryonic looking cells. In Becker's particular experimental set up ( illustrated in Figure 6A ) he found current flows between 200 and 700 picoamps ( 10-12 amps ) caused red blood cells to dedifferentiate into primitive embryonic looking cells. First the blood cells at the negative electrode dedifferentiated, then at the positive electrode, and then spreading across the rest of the chamber. Within a few hours all the blood cells had become completely unspecialized, lost their hemoglobin and their nuclei had reactivated.
Since the direct current in the saline solution can not flow through the red blood cell interiors do to their bi - lipid cell membranes acting as insulators, Becker's group proposed an interaction between the direct current and the cell membrane which released derepressor proteins on the inside of the cell membrane which derepressed genes and allowed or made the cell dedifferentiate into a primitive looking cell type. This hypothesis however does not explain: 1) Why only a narrow minuscule direct current flow range ( a current window ) works to dedifferentiate cells, 2) Why the dedifferentiation starts first at the negative electrode region and then the positive electrode region and then to be followed through out the entire chamber.
I am going to propose a similar but different hypothesis as to why minuscule current flow can cause cells to dedifferentiate. Becker's successful experiment to partially regrow a amputated rat arm using a implanted negative current source, will be used to illustrate my hypothesis. Figure 7A illustrates Becker's partially successful experimental attempt to regrow a rat's amputated forearm. From experimental data gained from observing salamanders regrow amputated limbs, Becker was able to estimate the amount of "negative" direct current flow needed at the amputation site on a rat's arm to form a blastema and to obtain regeneration or regrowth of the arm. Becker used the contact potential difference between two dissimilar metals to supply the needed direct current flow. This direct current flow would now be flowing in the saline body fluids of the rat. The two dissimilar metals were platinum and silver with a carbon high ohmage resistor connected between them to control the amount of current flow produced. The device formed this way and illustrated in Figure 7B was implanted in the rat arm with the negative electrode placed just behind the amputation site where the blastema is to form. Figures 7C illustrate the type of physical chemistry reactions that occur at and between the saline solution and electrode surface regions with this device. The negative platinum electrode becomes a continuous hydroxyl ion ( OH- ) source from a set of physical chemical reactions represented by Equations 1, 2, and 3.
Na+ + e _______> Na ; Equation 1
Na + H2O ________> NaOH + H ; Equation 2
NaOH __________> Na+ +
1 indicates the net result of an
electron (e) quantum tunneling ( jumping ) from the platinum metal surface to
the positive potential well of the Na+ ion in its own water molecule complex only a few atomic diameters away from
the platinum metal surface. Equation 2
indicates how the neutral sodium atom formed by the reaction of Equation 1 will quickly react with any nearby water
molecule to form sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) and a free hydrogen atom. Equation 3 indicates how the sodium hydroxide
is very unstable in water and rapidly decomposes into a sodium ion ( Na+ )
and a hydroxyl ion (
sodium ion ( Na+ ) of Equation 1 could be replaced by a potassium
ion ( K+ ) and achieve the same result. The hydroxyl ion (
The positive electrode has an analogous set of ion reactions occurring which offset or balance out the charge displacements occurring at the negative electrode. At the positive electrode silver ions (Ag+ ) are going into solution repelling the other positive ions of the saline solution, while at the same time attracting in negatively charged chlorine ions ( Cl- ) to balance off or counter the electric field generated by the silver positively charged ions . Chlorine ions recombine at the positive electrode forming chlorine gas ( Cl2 ) and donating their extra electron to the positively charged silver electrode. Also, minor amounts of molecular oxygen and positive hydrogen ions are being generated at the silver electrode surface by the reaction indicated in Equation 4.
2 H2O O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e Equation 4
The positive hydrogen ions also draw in negative chlorine ions to shield the electric field generated by the hydrogen ion positive charge.
As is well known from biological research, the type and amount of ion transport across the cell bi - lipid membrane and therefore the concentrations of various ion types inside a cell, controls much of a cell's physiology and genetic activity. All cell membranes have various types of ion channels for each ion type, i.e. Na+, K+ , Cl- , Ca++ , etc.. The various ion concentrations outside the cell lipid membrane strongly influence the ion transport across the cell membrane and therefore the ion concentrations inside the cell and thereby cell physiology and genetic activity.(6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13)
From our above discussion of how hydroxyl ion generation causes higher than normal positive ion concentrations around or in the region of a negative electrode we will now also see how higher than normal positive ion concentrations around a positive electrode can occur. Consider the hydroxyl ion generation process , which will occur in the set up of Figure 6B. Shortly after hydroxyl ion production has started, higher than normal positive ion concentration will occur around the negative electrode from the positive ions drawn in by the hydroxyl ion electric field, thereby shielding the hydroxyl ion electric field. The hydroxyl ions will not only keep diffusing away from the negative electrode after their creation , they are also actively being drawn toward the positive electrode. In Figure 6B the lines joining the two electrodes are the electric field lines. These lines represent the path that a negative or positive ion will follow when traveling between the two electrodes, if they initially are located on one of these lines and only the electric field is acting on the ion. The relatively shorter the line also represent where the electric field is relatively the strongest and where the ions therefore travel between the electrodes at the highest "drift" velocity. As the hydroxyl ions are generated at the negative electrode and bring in positive ions to shield their electric field , they are also being guided along the field lines of Figure 6B toward the positive electrode. However, the hydroxyl ions bring (drag) much of their positive shielding ions with them. Furthermore, as the hydroxyl ions which were generated on the shortest field lines travel away from the negative electrode toward the positive electrode carrying much of their shielding positive ions with them, other hydroxyl ions along with their positive ion shielding cloud are transported onto the shortest field lines by ion density gradient "pressures". The end or net result is that sort of a expanding plum of hydroxyl ions along with their positive shielding ions travel directly to the region of the positive electrode by approximately the shortest path. The cells surrounding the positive electrode thereby also experience a significant increase in the positive ion concentration on the outside of their cell membranes, along with a significant decrease in chlorine ion ( Cl- ) concentration from hydroxyl ion repulsion of chlorine ions. . These cells ( frog blood cells ) therefore go through the same changes as the cells at the negative electrode, as was described earlier. The positive hydrogen ions generated at the positive electrode also react with the negative hydroxyl ions to form water. However, the hydrogen ion diffusion velocity is so much greater than that of the hydroxyl ion that it rapidly diffuses out of the positive electrode region, thereby allowing the plum of hydroxyl ions along with its shielding positive ions to be drawn to the immediate vicinity of the positive electrode before the hydroxyl ions and hydrogen ions significantly recombine.
So far I have used simple hand waving qualitative electric field interaction arguments to indicate how significant ion concentration changes can occur around electrodes in saline solution to explain how cells can be effected by feeble direct electric currents. To explain how there is generated a positive ion concentration "wave" across the chamber of Figure 6B is too complex and beyond the scope and needs of this article.
Now that we have arrived at a qualitative understanding of how the embryonic looking / primitive dedifferentiated cells needed for blastema formation are created by ionic conditions outside cell membranes, how do we apply this information in a practical way ? All that is required is for us to realize we need only scale up the results of the rat experiment of Figure 7A to that of human size. For example, Figure 8 depicts a human finger which has been amputated just above the first knuckle. Platinum plated stainless steel acupuncture needles have been inserted directly behind the amputation site a few days or so after the amputation. It is the ion concentrations that are the missing critical factor. And the ion concentrations required for blastema formation and maintenance should be about the same for all mammals. So , all that is required is to imagine that each acupuncture needle is taking care of one rat arm section and then ask the question: Approximately how many rat arm section crossectional areas do we have in this amputated finger crossectional area ? That number is how many acupuncture needles are required for the finger. Note that I am using the same electrical circuit used in Figure 7A . That is the contact potential difference between silver and platinum supplies the driving voltage and a high ohmage carbon resistor limits / controls the current flow and therefore the hydroxyl ion generation rate. Becker found that a current in the neighborhood of two hundred nanoamps would work well in rat arm regeneration experiments. Unfortunately, there is a misprint or mistake on the optimal current required for rat forearm regeneration stated on page 152 of Backer's book, THE BODY ELECTRIC. It should state two hundred nano - amps not one nano - amp. Reference to the resistance range used ( 106 to 108 ohms ) in the Figure on page 153 when placed into Equation 5 below shows the error. Also reference to the resistance ( 10 Meg ohms ) used in cartilage regeneration experiments discussed on page 189 shows the error. Another reason to expect the current required in living tissue of animals to be much larger than those required in Becker's frog blood cell experiment, of Figure 6 A, is that that tissue has a blood supply to it. That blood supply system has associated with it the continuous active pressure and diffusion driven transport of blood plasma through the inter cellular spaces in the damaged tissue region. The hydroxyl ion generation rates are therefore required to be much higher to compensate for the sweeping away / dilution effects of the circulating blood supply in the damaged region.
Since the contact potential difference between silver and platinum is about 2.3 volts, we have from Ohm's Law :
Voltage (V) = Current (I) X Resistance (R) ; Equation 5
V = 2.3 volts and the required current ( I ) is 200 x 10-9 amps = 2 x 10-7 amps
R = V / I = 2.3 volts / 2 x 10-7amps = 11.5 x 106 ohms.
R is the required resistance to be in series with each acupuncture needle. Note, this R value is right in the middle of the resistance range ( 106 to 108 ohms ) used by Becker ,which was most successful in his rat arm regeneration experiments. Becker would of had complete rat arm regeneration, if he could of had the implant move along with the regrowth on the arm as Smith did in his complete regrowth of a amputated frog limb.(5)
After the blastema has formed and finger re growth has proceeded about one half a centimeter all of the acupuncture needles should be reinserted into the finger one half a centimeter in the forward direction. In other words the acupuncture needles must be kept relatively close behind the advancing blastema, until full regeneration has been achieved. What we have described here for the finger can be done for the hand, foot, arm, leg, breast, etc. we must only make sure to use enough needles evenly spaced apart with care taken to avoid the major nerves, arteries, and veins. As the crossectional area and therefore the thickness of the amputation site become larger and larger, the length of the acupuncture needles must increase to stay at least half the thickness at the amputation site and the current to each needle must increase. The current increase should be such that the current per unit length of the implanted needle remains the same as that used at the original finger amputation site discussed above. By simply changing (lowering ) the value of the high ohmage carbon resistors the current can be adjusted to the proper value ( a constant current per unit length of implanted needle length ). As the regeneration process proceeds the crossectional area of the advancing tissue will decrease. Less total current flow will be required to maintain the proper ionic conditions. Either or both a lessening of the number of needles used or a lowering of the current is desirable. However, when dealing with just a single finger one set of settings should do just fine.
The regeneration of body limbs should currently be a common practice in the practice of medicine. It is not, do to the rampant corruption at the highest levels of medical research funding and therefore research control. This fact was alluded to throughout Becker's book , and was discussed in detail in his last "chapter" ; Postscript: Political Science. This corruption can not be over stated. It is the driving reason behind the high cost, high profit , ineffective ( for the patient / victim ) allopathic medical system we are currently suffering under. For those of you who are becoming computer literate , there is a Web Site on INTERNET managed by Walter W. Stewart <firstname.lastname@example.org> Try:
hffp://nyx10.cs.du.edu:8001/~wstewart/ This Site contains the complete text of the Dingle Subcommittee Report on fraud and cover - up at the NIH.
In part 2 we will look at spinal cord regeneration, implications of ion concentrations outside cell membranes for cancer treatment, and whole body regeneration / rejuvenation in general.
1) THE BODY ELECTRIC by Robert O. Becker, M.D., and Gary Selden; Published by William Morrow and Company, Inc.
2) Ibid page 59
3) Ibid page 113.
4) Ibid page 143
5) Ibid page 151
6) ELECTROGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE Na , K PUMP by H. J. APELL, J. MEMBRANE BIOL. 110. 103 - 114 (1989)
7) ACTIVATION KINETICS OF SINGLE HIGH - THRESHOLD CALCIUM CHANNELS IN THE MEMBRANE OF SENSORY NEURONS FROM MOUSE EMBRYOS BY P. G. KOSTYUK,
YA. M. SHUBA, AND V. I. TESLENKO, J. MEMBRANE BIOL. 110. 29 - 38 (1989)
8) SINGLE CHLORIDE - SELECTIVE CHANNEL FROM CARDIAC SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM STUDIED IN PLANAR LIPID BILAYERS BY ERIC ROUSSEAU, J. MEMBRANE BIOL. 110. 39 - 47 (1989)
9) Ca2+ - ACTIVATED K+ CHANNELS FROM CULTURED RENAL MEDULLARY THICK ASCENDING LIMB CELLS: EFFECTS OF pH BY MIGUEL CORNEJO, SANDRA E. GUGGINO, AND WILLIAM B. GUGGINO, J. MEMBRANE BIOL. 110. 49 - 55 (1989)
10) MEMBRANE POTENTIAL, ANION AND CATION CONDUCTANCES IN EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR CELLS BY IAN HENRY LAMBERT, ELSE KAY HOFFMANN, AND FINN JORGENSEN, J. MEMBRANE BIOL. 111. 113 - 132 (1989)
11) AN ESSENTIAL 'SET' OF K+ CHANNELS CONSERVED IN FLIES, MICE AND HUMANS BY LAWRENCE SALKOFF, KEITH BAKER, ALICE BUTLER, MANUEL COVARRUBIAS, MICHAEL D. PAK AND AGUAN WEI, TINS, VOL. 15, NO. 5, 1992
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL
EXPRESSION OF A
RAT G - PROTEIN - COUPLED MUSCARINIC
POTASSIUM CHANNEL BY
YOSHIHIRO KUBO, EITAN
REUVENY, PAUL A.
SLESINGER, YUH NUNG
JAN AND LILY
Y. JAN, NATURE ,
13) THE TIPS / TINS LECTURE: THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF MAMMALIAN GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR CHANNELS BY PETER H. SEEBURG, TIPS - AUGUST 1993
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